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First aid at drowning
|In case of drowning it is necessary to work quickly. Any delay threatens to turn back a terrible tragedy! Therefore only timely first-aid treatment at drowning can save human life!|
Unfortunately, drowning cases – not a rarity. Especially now, when summer in the heat. Therefore vacationers should pay a maximum of attention of the safety on water.
It is best of all to bathe and sunbathe on "official" beaches where there are all necessary means for rescue of the drowning. On such beaches saving point which experts at the right time are always ready to come to the rescue has to be equipped. On saving point surely there have to be available lifebuoys, field-glasses, boats. On a beach there have to be observation towers for rescuers.
By no means it is impossible to come into water of the being able alcoholic or drug intoxication! It is not necessary to sail far from the coast, to swim away for anchor buoys, to dive too deeply – it is possible not to calculate the forces. It is impossible to bathe and the more so to dive in unfamiliar places of reservoirs is it is fraught with injuries.
Having noticed the sinking person, it is necessary to report about it to rescuers urgently. But if rescuers are far or they in general are not present on a beach, it is necessary to rescue sinking independently.
The rescuing has to reach quickly the next to the sinking place along the coast. It is necessary to swim up to sinking behind, differently sinking in convulsive attempts unintentionally come up can grab rescuing and to be exempted from such capture very difficult.
If the sinking plunged on a bottom, it is necessary to dive and swim up to sinking along a bottom, considering thus the direction and speed of a current. At detection sinking it is necessary to take it by hand, under mice or by hair. Having strongly made a start from a bottom, to emerge, working feet and a free hand.
On a surface it is necessary to support sinking so that his head remained over a water surface. Helping itself a free hand, it is necessary to try to bring as fast as possible the victim to the coast.
The first minute after drowning in water it is possible to rescue more than 90% of victims, in 6-7 minutes - only about 1-3%. Therefore it is necessary to get it together, to reject a panic and to start working. The necessary volume of first-aid treatment at drowning is estimated proceeding from a condition of the victim.
At drowning the death is caused by a lack of oxygen. The lack of oxygen can is caused by a reflex spasm of a throat which interferes with hit not only air, but also water in lungs. Such drowning received the name of the dry.
At dry drowning the victim faints and at once falls by a bottom. Skin of the victim has a cyanotic shade, however it is less expressed than at true drowning, i.e. drowning because of hit in water airways. Also at true drowning from a mouth and a nose of the victim foamy liquid is emitted.
At drowning in fresh water water quickly gets to the victim's blood because concentration of salts in fresh water less, than in blood. Thus erythrocytes collapse, gas exchange is broken, pink foam is formed. Sometimes hypostasis of lungs develops.
At drowning in sea water the victim's blood, on the contrary, is condensed and the part of blood from blood vessels gets into alveoluses. Liquid in alveoluses conducts to their gap. Hypostasis of lungs develops. There is a cardiac arrest.
At so-called sinkopalny drowning victims have no breath and heartbeat. Skin unlike other types of drowning has not cyanotic, but pale coloring.
When the victim is brought to the coast, it is necessary to check a condition of its vital indicators. If breath and pulse are satisfactory, the victim needs to be laid on a dry rigid surface. The head of the victim has to be low hung. The victim should be relieved of the constraining clothes, to pound hands or a towel. To give to the victim hot drink, to wrap up with a warm blanket. To call "ambulance" and it is obligatory to send the victim for hospitalization.
If drowned unconscious, but it kept pulse and breath, it is necessary to clear its mouth of sand, silt, emetic masses. Further actions are similar the aforesaid.
If the victim has no life signs (there is no breath, there is no pulse), it is necessary to clear lungs of the victim of water and immediately to start reanimation. To remove liquid from airways of the victim, it should be put a stomach on a hip of the foot bent in a knee joint. On a back of the victim to press a hand between shovels. To hold with the second hand the victim's forehead. These actions need to be made quickly.
For reanimation drowned to it do an artificial respiration "a mouth in a mouth" or "a mouth in a nose" in combination with indirect massage of heart. For artificial ventilation of lungs of the victim it is necessary to lay on a back, to exempt from clothes, to throw back his head back. The rescuing puts one hand under the victim's neck, the second – on a forehead.
To push the lower jaw of the victim forward and up is it is necessary to restore passability of airways. Having made the deep breath rescuing, having densely nestled lips on a mouth or the victim's nose (through a scarf if is), blows air. Thus, if breath "a mouth in a mouth" becomes, it is necessary to hold the victim's nose, if "a mouth in a nose" - that a mouth. The exhalation occurs passively.
If when carrying out an artificial respiration from airways of the drowned liquid continues to be emitted, it is necessary to turn the victim's head aside and to raise an opposite shoulder – so liquid will quicker flow out.
It is necessary to continue an artificial respiration to a complete recovery of respiratory function!
Indirect massage of heart should be done if the victim has no blood circulation signs. Rescuing has to settle down sideways from the victim, hands have to be perpendicular surfaces of a thorax of the victim. To put one hand perpendicular to a breast in its lower third, and another - over the first hand, parallel to the breast plane.
Rhythmical, with a frequency of 60-70 a minute, pushes the rescuing has to press sharply on a thorax – the breast caves in on 3-4 cm and blood from ventricles of heart gets to blood system. In intervals between pressings of a hand it is impossible to tear off.
When carrying out reanimation it is necessary to alternate 4-5 pressings to one breath. It is necessary to continue indirect massage of heart on emergence of independent heartbeat.
After first-aid treatment at drowning of the victim surely it is necessary to hospitalize as even after restoration of vital signs there is a risk of development of secondary drowning and hypostasis of lungs.
Remember! Rescue drowning is, first of all, work drowning! Be careful on water!
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