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Than to feed a dog?
|/img >/img src="//images/stories/tip/animals/dog-feeding.jpg" alt="Than to feed a dog?" align=left title="Чем кормить собаку?" /> All of us love the domestic pets and we want for them only the best. But animals differ from the person and that we consider for them useful, actually can be even harmful. So, owners often feed dogs as it is necessary: that the remains from the table, various offal, meat or fish. It is impossible to call such approach to feeding of dogs rational.|
The digestive system for a dog works a little differently, than for the person. The dog does not chew food, she breaks off it and swallows big pieces. The dog too acquires nutrients from food in a different way therefore the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in her food has to be "ground" under a dog organism.
The power exchange at dogs depends on their weight. At big dogs, whose weight exceeds 50 kg, the energy needs make 2000-4000 calories, depending on a type of loading. Dogs of small breeds which no more than 10-15 kg weigh, need energy from 500 to 1000 calories, also depending on loading. Besides, at the movement power consumption at a dog is maximum - in addition 1 kcal on weight kilogram on each 2 km of a way. Food of a dog has to fill these expenses fully.
Dogs best of all acquire crude meat. But because of the high cost of this product, not always it turns out to give to a dog enough meat. But anyway, the general need of a dog for proteins has to be provided with at least five percent of animal proteins. The amino acids, vital for a dog, contain not only in meat, but also in other products. For example, such amino acids as a lysine and methionine in enough are only dry yeast.
Fats are acquired by a dog well (to 90%), however the dog cannot give long food which contains only saturated fatty acids as it leads to skin diseases. Also it is impossible to give to a dog pro-rancid fats, from them in an organism vitamins A and E collapse.
It is better for dogs not to give potatoes and bean as these products very hard are digested their digestive system. The need of a dog for carbohydrates becomes covered at the expense of starch which contains in grain.
Adult dogs do not acquire cow's milk due to the lack of digestive enzyme which splits milk lactose. Lactose in a diet of a dog should not be more than 4%, differently it can cause diarrhea.
Need of a dog for calcium, and also for phosphorus and magnesium, it is possible to satisfy if to add 1-2 percent of a bone flour to a diet. The dog can feed crude bones, but it is better not to abuse it, after all bones, especially tubular, can wound with the splinters a dog.
For vitaminization it should be added to a diet of a dog also some vegetable products, such as spinach, tomatoes, a cauliflower, carrots, apples. But the vegetable food should not be much as its surplus causes deficiency of mineral substances in an organism of a dog.
Nutritiousness of a diet of a dog is influenced also by ways of heat treatment of food. The way of preparation of meat a dog does not influence degree of its comprehensibility though it is better to give nevertheless preference to crude meat (if only there are no doubts in its quality). And here processing of uglevodosoderzhashchy food, cottage cheese or eggs plays an important role in digestion of these products. So, for example, the dog acquires crude protein of egg only for 50-60%, and boiled - already for 90%.
Thus, optimum the daily diet of an adult dog has to include 3-4 g/kg of a crude protein (10-20 g/kg in terms of meat food), 1-2 g/kg of fat (1/10 koliyochestvo of meat) and 5-6 g/kg of carbohydrates (1/2 amounts of meat). The ratio of proteinaceous food to vegetable in norm for a vzrosyoly dog has to be 2:1, for a puppy and a shchenny female - 3:1.
The balanced food allowance made taking into account energy and physiological needs, for dogs of different breeds following (according to Donat, 1975).
Large breeds: the East European sheep-dog, a mastiff, a St. Bernard - 200 g of milk, 600 g of meat, 300 g of boiled rice or bread, 60 g of fat, 50 g of a bone flour.
Breeds of the average sizes: a German shepherd, an airdale, a collie, a riesenschnauzer - 100 g of milk, 300 g of meat, 150 g of boiled rice or bread, 25 g of fat, 20 g of a bone flour.
Small breeds: a fox terrier, the Tibetan terrier, a small poodle - 50 g of milk, 150 g of meat, 75 g of boiled rice or bread, 10 g of a bone flour.
Dwarfish breeds: the toy terrier, a dwarfish pinyocher, a lap dog - 30 g of milk, 100 g of meat, 50 g of boiled rice or bread, 8 g of fat, 7 g of a bone flour.
Frequency rate of feedings is established depending on an animal vozyorast: puppies within the first week of life are koryomit by each 2 h, in the next three weeks - each 3 h, aged from 1 till 2 months - 5-6 times a day, from 2 to 3 months - 4 times, from 3 to 5 months - 3 times and further - 2 times a day for life, offering only milk, and in the evening - osyonovny feeding in the morning. As an exception, to dogs of large breeds the daily diet is divided into 3-4 feedings in the small portions.
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